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|May 2018||Goldenberg SM, Rocha Jimenez T, Brouwer KC, Morales Miranda S, Silverman JG. Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018;18(1):9. PMID: 29394893. PMCID: 5797417.|
About This Paper
Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational interventions situated in labour rights frameworks to support HIV prevention for sex workers, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers’ needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America where the majority of sex workers are migrants from other countries and communities. This study investigated migrant sex workers’ narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border.
Drawing on theoretical perspectives on risk environments and structural determinants of HIV in sex work, we analyzed in-depth interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic fieldwork conducted with 39 migrant sex workers who engaged in sex work within indoor work environments (e.g., bars, cantinas, nightclubs) between 2012 and 2015 in Tecún Umán, Guatemala.
Participant narratives revealed the following intersecting themes to be most closely linked to safety and agency to engage in HIV/STI prevention: physical features of indoor work environments (e.g., physical layout of venue, proximity to peers and third parties); social norms and practices for alcohol use within the workplace; the existence and nature of management practices and policies on health and safety practices; and economic influences relating to control over earnings and clients. Across work environments, health and safety were greatly shaped by human rights concerns stemming from workplace interactions with police, immigration authorities, and health authorities.
Physical isolation, establishment norms promoting alcohol use, restricted economic agency, and human rights violations related to sex work policies and immigration enforcement were found to exacerbate risks. However, some establishment policies and practices promoted ‘enabling environments’ for health and safety, supporting HIV/STI prevention, economic agency, and protection from violence and exploitation; these practices and policies were especially crucial for recent migrants. These findings are relevant to HIV science and interventions as they suggest the critical need for policy reforms and structural workplace interventions tailored to migrant sex workers’ needs in order to promote improved working conditions, agency to negotiate and prevent HIV risks, and ensure access to health, safety, and human rights for migrant women involved in sex work.