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Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry

Overview, Location & Contact

The Flow Cytometry Research Core facility provides a centralized resource for technical expertise and major equipment. The Core supports and enhances experimental design and execution of basic and applied research that require flow cytometric cell analysis or sorting.

To achieve this objective, the Core offers the following services:

  • Expert consultation is provided through the core director, laboratory supervisor, and our senior technical specialists;
  • Cytometry instruments are selected for complementary functions;
  • Equipment use is accessible through dedicated technician-operators;
  • All services are provided on a recharge basis;
  • Assistance with data analysis can be customized to the needs of individual investigators and research projects.

The core facility contains five major pieces of equipment that perform multiple functions. Current services include: multiparameter analysis (1-6 antibody combinations) on cell suspensions and cells fixed to slides, and small to large volume cell sorting. Types of cell analyses include: cell maturation phenotypes; cell proliferation and activation (cell cycle/DNA content, CFSE dye; calcium flux, CD69, Annexin-V); intra-cellular proteins (cytokines, cell cycle regulators, viral products); quantification of molecular promoters and reporter genes (GFP, beta-gal; FRET).

Live and fixed cell sorting is performed to recover cell subsets, identified with any combination of the above mentioned analysis tools. A specially equipped cell sorter is available for work with live, biohazardous cell samples (experimental protocol requires approval of the Core Director). Contact the facility to schedule services. The laboratory supervisor and core director are available to help with the design of custom flow cytometry protocols to achieve the specific aims of individual research projects.

The laboratory supervisor and Core director are available to assist with the design of custom flow cytometry protocols to achieve the specific aims of individual research projects. It is strongly recommended that investigators discuss new experimental designs with laboratory personnel before initiating work.


Core Director Celsa Spina, Ph.D.
Lab Manager Tara Rambaldo
Senior Technical Specialist Neal Sekiya

Contact Information

Lab telephone: (858) 552-8585 ext. 5933
Core Director telephone: 858-552-8585 ext. 7189
FAX: (858) 552-7436
Mail code: V-151


Flow Cytometry Research Core Facility
VA San Diego Healthcare System
Rm. 6189B / MC-151
3350 La Jolla Village Drive
San Diego , CA 92161

Click here to map directions to VA Flow Lab

Our facility is located in room 6189B on the 6th floor, East wing of the VA San Diego Health Care System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, connected to the UCSD School of Medicine campus via a pedestrian bridge.

Services, Pricing, & Instruments

Services provided by the CFAR Flow Cytometry Core

Read More…

Request Services

Please use online Service Request Form.

The Flow Cytometry Core of the UC San Diego Center for AIDS Research offers numerous services at highly competitive prices. Please see our services and pricing for details. Then read over our policies & guidelines.

** NOTE: When requesting for sorts, please schedule your appointment 2 weeks in advance. Prior to scheduling a BIOHAZARD SORT appointment, please contact Dr. Celsa Spina via email with your protocol for approval. We will not schedule biohazard sorts without Dr. Spina's approval.

When you are ready to request services, please check out our CALENDAR to determine time slot. Then fill out the SERVICE REQUEST FORM. Make sure you enter your email correctly on the form.

You will receive an email to review your information entered in the Service Request Form. If there's any changes or mistakes, please give us a call (858) 552-8585 x5933 or email us at

When your appointment is confirmed, you will receive a google calendar invite via email.


Please use the following calendar to check your appointment or search for available time slots.

The link address is:

Guidelines & Forms

Guidelines, Forms, and Policies for FACS Service

This is where you can find our list of forms and guidelines when submitting your experiments for FACS service.

CFAR Flow Lab Policies

Sorting Guidelines
Flow Experiment Setup Guidelines

Service Request Form (please check Calendar first)
Investigator Information Sheet (for new clients)
Tube Listing Sheet

* NOTE for using TUBE LISTING SHEET: If you have a google or gmail account, you must sign in and MAKE A COPY of the spreadsheet (by selecting MAKE A COPY from the FILE menu). Then you can input your tube information and print it. If you don't have a google or gmail account, please DOWNLOAD the tube listing sheet as an Excel file to use (by selecting DOWNLOAD AS from the FILE menu).


How to acknowledge the Flow Cytometry Core in your publications

The operation of our Core facility is supplemented heavily by government research funding. To continue to maintain this support, it is essential that investigators acknowledge the facility’s contribution to their research projects.

If a publication results from work performed through this Core, please include this acknowledgement:

This work was performed with the support of the Flow Cytometry Core at the UC San Diego Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI036214), the VA San Diego Health Care System, and the San Diego Veterans Medical Research Foundation.

We would greatly appreciate a reprint of your published manuscript, referencing our core. Please e-mail a PDF of your publication. 


Goicoechea M, Smith D, May S, Mathews C, Spina C. Prevalence and T-cell phenotype of slow HIV disease progressors with robust HIV replication. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52(2):299-301. PMC2818087.

Mitchell RS, Katsura C, Skasko MA, Fitzpatrick K, Lau D, Ruiz A, Stephens EB, Margottin-Goguet F, Benarous R, Guatelli JC. Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5(5):e1000450. PMC2679223.

Morrey JD, Korba BE, Beadle JR, Wyles DL, Hostetler KY. Alkoxyalkyl esters of 9-(s)-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl) adenine are potent and selective inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in vitro and in HBV transgenic mice in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53(7):2865-2870. PMC2704649.

Singh RK, Lau D, Noviello CM, Ghosh P, Guatelli JC. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the micro subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex. PLoS One. 2009;4(12):e8364. PMC2791223.

Smith DM, Zarate S, Shao H, Pillai SK, Letendre SL, Wong JK, Richman DD, Frost SDW, Ellis RJ, and the HNRC Group. Pleocytosis is associated with disruption of HIV compartmentalization between blood and cerebral spinal fluid viral populations. Virology. 2009;385(1):204-208. PMC2794037.

Spehlmann ME, Dann SM, Hruz P, Hanson E, McCole DF, Eckmann L. CXCR2-dependent mucosal neutrophil influx protects against colitis-associated diarrhea caused by an attaching/effacing lesion-forming bacterial pathogen. J Immunol. 2009;183(5):3332-3343. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

Terry VH, Johnston IC, Spina CA. CD44 microbeads accelerate HIV-1 infection in T cells. Virology. 2009;388(2):294-304. PMC2699902.

Tokarev A, Skasko M, Fitzpatrick K, Guatelli J. Antiviral activity of the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/tetherin. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25(12):1197-1210. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.


Aschbacher K, Mills PJ, Kanel RV, Hong S, Mausbach BT, Roepke SK, Dimsdale JE, Patterson TL, Ziegler MG, ncoli-Israel S, Grant I. Effects of depressive and anxious symptoms on norepinephrine and platelet P-selectin responses to acute psychological stress among elderly caregivers. Brain Behav.Immun. Available at: PM:18054198. Accessed February 22, 2008.

Barroga CF, Pham H, Kaushansky K. Thrombopoietin regulates c-Myb expression by modulating micro RNA 150 expression. Exp Hematol. 2008;36(12):1585-1592. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

del Pilar Jimenez AM, Viriyakosol S, Walls L, Datta SK, Kirkland T, Heinsbroek SE, Brown G, Fierer J. Susceptibility to Coccidioides species in C57BL/6 mice is associated with expression of a truncated splice variant of Dectin-1 (Clec7a). Genes Immun. 2008;9(4):338-348. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

Feral CC, Neels JG, Kummer C, Slepak M, Olefsky JM, Ginsberg MH. Blockade of alpha4 integrin signaling ameliorates the metabolic consequences of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Diabetes. 2008;57(7):1842-1851. PMC2453617.

Hartvigsen K, Chou MY, Hansen LF, Shaw PX, Tsimikas S, Binder CJ, Witztum JL. The role of innate immunity in atherogenesis. J Lipid Res. Available from: Accessed March 5, 2009.

Hitchcock IS, Chen MM, King JR, Kaushansky K. YRRL motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the thrombopoietin receptor regulate receptor internalization and degradation. Blood. 2008;112(6):2222-2231. PMC2532800.

Hitchcock IS, Fox NE, Prevost N, Sear K, Shattil SJ, Kaushansky K. Roles of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in megakaryopoiesis and platelet function: studies using a megakaryocyte lineage specific FAK knockout. Blood. 2008;111(2):596-604.

Kwai-Kanai E, Yuan H, Huang C, Sayen MR, Perry-Garza CN, Kim L, Gottlieb RA. A method to measure cardiac autophagic flux in vivo. Autophagy. 2008;4(3):322-329.

Lee J, Gonzales-Navajas JM, Raz E. The "polarizing-tolerizing" mechanism of intestinal epithelium: its relevance to colonic homeostasis. Semin Immunopathol. 2008;30(1):3-9. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

Meinzer U, Esmiol-Welterlin S, Barreau F, Berrebi D, Dussaillant M, Bonacorsi S, Chareyre F, Niwa-Kawakita M, Alberti C, Sterkers G, Villard C, Lesuffleur T, Peuchmaur M, Karin M, Eckmann L, Giovannini M, Ollendorff V, Wolf-Watz H, Hugot JP. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.PLos ONE. 2008;3(7):e2769. PMC2447872.

Mitchell RS, Chaudhuri R, Lindwasser OW, Tanaka KA, Lau D, Murillo R, Bonifacino JS, Guatelli JC. Competition model for upregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef. J Virol. 2008;82(16):7758-7767. PMC2519569.

Nakao T, Geddis AE, Fox NE, Kaushansky K. PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a pathway contributes to thrombopoietin-induced proliferation of primary megakaryocytes in vitro and in vivo via modulation of p27(Kip1). Cell Cycle. 2008;7(2):257-266.

Nofsinger RR, Li P, Hong SH, Jonker JW, Barish GD, Ying H, Cheng SY, Leblanc M, Xu W, Pei L, Kang YJ, Nelson M, Downes M, Yu RT, Olefsky JM, Lee CH, Evans RM. SMRT repression of nuclear receptors controls the adipogenic set point and metabolic homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(50):20021-20026. PMC2598729.

Noviello CM, Benichou S, Guatelli JC. Cooperative binding of the class I major histocompatibility complex cytoplasmic domain and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef to the endosomal AP-1 complex via its mu subunit. J Virol. 2008;82(3):1249-1258. PMC2224416.

Patsouris D, Li PP, Thapar D, Chapman J, Olefsky JM, Neels JG. Ablation of CD11c-positive cells normalizes insulin sensitivity in obese insulin resistant animals. Cell Metab. 2008;8(4):301-309. PMC2630775.

Perry CN, Kyoi S, Hariharan N, Takagi H, Sadoshima J, Gottlieb RA. Novel methods for measuring cardiac autophagy in vivo. Methods Enzymol. 2009;453:325-342. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

Sann SB, Xu L, Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Spitzer NC. Neurite outgrowth and in vivo sensory innervation mediated by a Ca(V)2.2-laminin beta 2 stop signal. J Neurosci. 2008;28(10):2366-2374.

Soda M, Willert K, Kaushansky K, Geddis AE. Inhibition of GSK-3beta promotes survival and proliferation of megakaryocytic cells through a beta-catenin-independent pathway. Cell Signal. 2008;20(12):2317-2323. PMCID: PMC Journal-in process.

Van Damme N, Goff D, Katsura C, Jorgenson RL, Mitchell R, Johnson MC, Stephens EB, Guatelli J. The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3(4):245-252. PMC2474773.

Aschbacher K, von Kanel R, Mills PJ, Hong S, Roepke SK, Mausbach BT, Patterson TL, Ziegler MG, Dimsdale JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Grant I.  Combination of caregiving stress and hormone replacement therapy is associated with prolonged platelet activation to acute stress among postmenopausal women. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(9):910-917.

Di Nardo A, Braff MH, Taylor KR, Na C, Granstein RD, McInturff JE, Krutzik S, Modlin RL, Gallo RL.  Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization. J Immunol. 2007;178(3):1829-1834.

Dueck M, Guatelli J.  Evidence against a direct antiviral activity of the proteasome during the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Virology. 2007;361(1):1-8.

Fierer J.  The role of IL-10 in genetic susceptibility to coccidioidomycosis on mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1111:236-244.

Geddis AE, Fox NE, Tkachenko E, Kaushansky K.  Endomitotic megakaryocytes that form a bipolar spindle exhibit cleavage furrow ingression followed by furrow regression. Cell Cycle. 2007;6(4):455-460.

Hevener AL, Olefsky JM, Reichart D, Nguyen MT, Bandyopadyhay G, Leung HY, Watt MJ, Benner C, Febbraio MA, Nguyen AK, Folian B, Subramaniam S, Gonzalez FJ, Glass CK, Ricote M.  Macrophage PPAR gamma is required for normal skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin sensitivity and full antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(6):1658-1669.

Hitchcock IS, Kaushansky K.  Thrombopoietin promotes beta1-integrin-mediated adhesion in hematopoietic cells via the small GTPase Rapl. Exp Hematol. 2007;35(5):793-801.

Lu P, Jones LL, Tuszynski MH.  Axon regeneration through scars and into sites of chronic spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2007;203(1):8-21.

Noviello CM, Pond SL, Lewis MJ, Richman DD, Pillai SK, Yang OO, Little SJ, Smith DM, Guatelli JC.  Maintenance of Nef-mediated modulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 after sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81(9):4776-4786.

Oakley RH, Olivares-Reyes JA, Hudson CC, Flores-Vega F, Dautzenberg FM, Hauger RL.  Carboxyl-terminal and intracellular loop sites for CRF1 receptor phosphorylation and beta-arrestin-2 recruitment: a mechanism regulating stress and anxiety responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293(1):R209-R222.

Painter GR, Almond MR, Trost LC, Lampert BM, Neyts J, De CE, Korba BE, Aldern KA, Beadle JR, Hostetler KY.  Evaluation of hexadecyloxypropyl-9-R-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]- adenine, CMX157, as a potential treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis B virus infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(10):3505-3509.

Redwine LS, Mills PJ, Hong S, Rutledge T, Reis V, Maisel A, Irwin MR.  Cardiac-related hospitalization and/or death associated with immune dysregulation and symptoms of depression in heart failure patients. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(1):23-29.

Ruiz JC, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Keith KA, Hartline CB, Kern ER, Hostetler KY.  Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl-phosphate conjugates of cidofovir and adefovir. Antiviral Res. 2007;75(1):87-90.

Bunch TA, Helsten TL, Kendall TL, Shirahatti N, Mahadevan D, Shattil SJ, Brower DL.  Amino acid changes in Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrins that affect ligand affinity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281(8):5050-5057.

Chen JS, Pardo FS, Wang-Rodriguez J, Chu TS, Lopez JP, Aguilera J, Altuna X, Weisman RA, Ongkeko WM.  EGFR regulates the side population in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(3):401-406.

Coleman SH, Madrid R, Van DN, Mitchell RS, Bouchet J, Servant C, Pillai S, Benichou S, Guatelli JC.  Modulation of cellular protein trafficking by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef: role of the acidic residue in the ExxxLL motif. J Virol. 2006;80(4):1837-1849.

Datta SK, Okamoto S, Hayashi T, Shin SS, Mihajlov I, Fermin A, Guiney DG, Fierer J, Raz E.  Vaccination with irradiated Listeria induces protective T cell immunity. Immunity. 2006;25(1):143-152.

Day JR, Van DN, Guatelli JC.  The effect of the membrane-proximal tyrosine-based sorting signal of HIV-1 gp41 on viral infectivity depends on sequences within gp120. Virology. 2006;354(2):316-327.

Fierer J, Waters C, Walls L.  Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells can mediate vaccine-induced protection against Coccidioides immitis infection in mice. J Infect Dis. 2006;193(9):1323-1331.

Fierer J.  IL-10 and susceptibility to Coccidioides immitis infection. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14(10):426-427.

Geddis AE, Kaushansky K.  Endomitotic megakaryocytes form a midzone in anaphase but have a deficiency in cleavage furrow formation. Cell Cycle. 2006;5(5):538-545.

Han J, Lim CJ, Watanabe N, Soriani A, Ratnikov B, Calderwood DA, Puzon-McLaughlin W, Lafuente EM, Boussiotis VA, Shattil SJ, Ginsberg MH.  Reconstructing and deconstructing agonist-induced activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Curr Biol. 2006;16(18):1796-1806.

Hostetler KY, Aldern KA, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Beadle JR.  Alkoxyalkyl esters of (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine are potent inhibitors of the replication of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(8):2857-2859.

Jiang Z, Georgel P, Li C, Choe J, Crozat K, Rutschmann S, Du X, Bigby T, Mudd S, Sovath S, Wilson IA, Olson A, Beutler B.  Details of Toll-like receptor:adapter interaction revealed by germ-line mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(29):10961-10966.

Kirito K, Kaushansky K.  Transcriptional regulation of megakaryopoiesis: thrombopoietin signaling and nuclear factors. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006;13(3):151-156.

Lee J, Mo JH, Katakura K, Alkalay I, Rucker AN, Liu YT, Lee HK, Shen C, Cojocaru G, Shenouda S, Kagnoff M, Eckmann L, Ben-Neriah Y, Raz E.  Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8(12):1327-1336.

Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zugel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL.  Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006;311(5768):1770-1773.

Lu P, Yang H, Culbertson M, Graham L, Roskams AJ, Tuszynski MH.  Olfactory ensheathing cells do not exhibit unique migratory or axonal growth-promoting properties after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2006;26(43):11120-11130.

Ricote M, Snyder CS, Leung HY, Chen J, Chien KR, Glass CK.  Normal hematopoiesis after conditional targeting of RXRalpha in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80(4):850-861.

Stone GW, Barzee S, Snarsky V, Spina CA, Lifson JD, Pillai VK, Amara RR, Villinger F, Kornbluth RS.  Macaque multimeric soluble CD40 ligand and GITR ligand constructs are immunostimulatory molecules in vitro. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13(11):1223-1230.

Stone GW, Barzee S, Snarsky V, Kee K, Spina CA, Yu XF, Kornbluth RS.  Multimeric soluble CD40 ligand and GITR ligand as adjuvants for human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2006;80(4):1762-1772.

Swan CH, Buhler B, Steinberger P, Tschan MP, Barbas CF, III, Torbett BE.  T-cell protection and enrichment through lentiviral CCR5 intrabody gene delivery. Gene Ther. 2006;13(20):1480-1492.

Taylor L, Jones L, Tuszynski MH, Blesch A.  Neurotrophin-3 gradients established by lentiviral gene delivery promote short-distance axonal bridging beyond cellular grafts in the injured spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2006;26(38):9713-9721.

Valiaeva N, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Trahan J, Hostetler KY.  Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl esters of acyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonates against HIV-1 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2006;72(1):10-19.

Viriyakosol S, McCray PB, Ashbaugh ME, Chu J, Jia HP, Weiss J, Kirkland TN.  Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human soluble MD-2 protein. Hybridoma (Larchmt ). 2006;25(6):349-357.

Viriyakosol S, Tobias PS, Kirkland TN.  Mutational analysis of membrane and soluble forms of human MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281(17):11955-11964.

Braff MH, Zaiou M, Fierer J, Nizet V, Gallo RL. Keratinocyte production of cathelicidin provides direct activity against bacterial skin pathogens.  Infect Immun. 73:6771-6781, 2005.

Braff MH, Hawkins MA, Di Nardo A, Lopez-Garcia B, Howell MD, Wong C, Lin K, Streib JE, Dorschner R, Leung DY, Gallo RL. Structure-function relationships among human cathelicidin peptides: dissociation of antimicrobial properties from host immunostimulatory activities.  J Immunol. 174:4271-4278, 2005.

Braff MH, Di Nardo A, Gallo RL. Keratinocytes store the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lamellar bodies.  J Invest Dermatol. 124:394-400, 2005.

Chanprasert S, Geddis AE, Barroga C, Fox NE, Kaushansky K. Thrombopoietin (TPO) induces c-myc expression through a PI3K- and MAPK-dependent pathway that is not mediated by Akt, PKC(zeta) or mTOR in TPO-dependent cell lines and primary megakaryocytes.  Cell Signal. 2005 Dec 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Coleman SH, Van Damme N, Day JR, Noviello CM, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Benichou S, Guatelli JC. Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes.  J Virol. 79:2066-2078, 2005.

Eaton AM, Sandler R, Carethers JM, Millikan RC, Galanko J, Keku TO. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 and 1298 polymorphisms, folate intake, and microsatellite instability in colon cancer.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 14:2023-2029, 2005.

Erker L, Schubert R, Yakushiji H, Barlow C, Larson D, Mitchell JB, Wynshaw-Boris A. Cancer chemoprevention by the antioxidant tempol acts partially via the p53 tumor suppressor.  Hum Mol Genet. 14:1699-1708, 2005.

Hong S, Johnson TA, Farag NH, Guy HJ, Matthews SC, Ziegler MG, Mills PJ. Attenuation of T-lymphocyte demargination and adhesion molecule expression in response to moderate exercise in physically fit individuals.  J Appl Physiol. 98:1057-1063, 2005.

Hostetler, K.Y., Rought, S. Aldern, K.A. Trahan, J. Beadle, J.R. Beadle and Corbeil, J.  Enhanced Antiproliferative Effects Of Alkoxyalkyl Esters Of Cidofovir In Human Cervical Cancer Cells In Vitro, Mol Cancer Ther. 5:156-159, 2006.

Kirito K, Kaushansky K. Thrombopoietin stimulates vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) production in hematopoietic stem cells.  Cell Cycle. 4:1729-1731, 2005.

Kirito K, Fox N, Komatsu N, Kaushansky K. Thrombopoietin enhances expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in primitive hematopoietic cells through induction of HIF-1alpha.  Blood. 105:4258-4263, 2005.<

Lee PH, Ohtake T, Zaiou M, Murakami M, Rudisill JA, Lin KH, Gallo RL. Expression of an additional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide protects against bacterial skin infection.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102:3750-3755, 2005.

Madrid R, Janvier K, Hitchin D, Day J, Coleman S, Noviello C, Bouchet J, Benmerah A, Guatelli J, Benichou S. Nef-induced alteration of the early/recycling endosomal compartment correlates with enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity.  J Biol Chem. 280:5032-5044, 2005.

Pillai SK, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Woelk CH, Richman DD, Smith DM. Codon volatility does not reflect selective pressure on the HIV-1 genome.  Virology. 336:137-143, 2005.

Satia JA, Keku T, Galanko JA, Martin C, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Sandler RS, Carethers JM. Diet, lifestyle, and genomic instability in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 14:429-436, 2005.

Strain MC, Little SJ, Daar ES, Havlir DV, Gunthard HF, Lam RY, Daly OA, Nguyen J, Ignacio CC, Spina CA, Richman DD, Wong JK. Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1.  J Infect Dis. 191:1410-1418, 2005.

Viriyakosol S, Fierer J, Brown GD, Kirkland TN. Innate immunity to the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides posadasii is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 and Dectin-1.  Infect Immun. 73:1553-1560, 2005.

Walker W, Zhou ZQ, Ota S, Wynshaw-Boris A, Hurlin PJ. Mnt-Max to Myc-Max complex switching regulates cell cycle entry.  J Cell Biol. 169:405-413, 2005.

Wang JP, Hayashi T, Datta SK, Kornbluth RS, Raz E, Guiney DG. CpG oligonucleotides partially inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not Salmonella or Listeria, in human monocyte-derived macrophages.  FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.45:303-310, 2005.

Asensi V, Valle E, Meana A, Fierer J, Celada A, Alvarez V, Paz J, Coto E, Carton JA, Maradona JA, Dieguez A, Sarasua J, Ocana MG, Arribas JM. In vivo interleukin-6 protects neutrophils from apoptosis in osteomyelitis.  Infect Immun. 2004 Jul;72(7):3823-8.

Blesch A, Tuszynski MH. Gene therapy and cell transplantation for Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury.  Yonsei Med J. 2004 Jun 30;45 Suppl:28-31. Review.

Bolovan-Fritts CA, Trout RN, Spector SA. Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+-T-cell cytokine response induces fractalkine in endothelial cells.  J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(23):13173-81.

Cunard R, Eto Y, Muljadi JT, Glass CK, Kelly CJ, Ricote M. Repression of IFN-gamma expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.  J Immunol. 2004 Jun 15;172(12):7530-6.

Day JR, Munk C, Guatelli JC. The membrane-proximal tyrosine-based sorting signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 is required for optimal viral infectivity.  J Virol. 2004 Feb;78(3):1069-79.

Dong T, Stewart-Jones G, Chen N, Easterbrook P, Xu X, Papagno L, Appay V, Weekes M, Conlon C, Spina C, Little S, Screaton G, van der Merwe A, Richman DD, McMichael AJ, Jones EY, Rowland-Jones SL. HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells from long-term survivors select a unique T cell receptor.  J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 20;200(12):1547-57. Epub 2004 Dec 13.

Geddis AE, Kaushansky K. Megakaryocytes express functional Aurora-B kinase in endomitosis.  Blood. 2004 Aug 15;104(4):1017-24. Epub 2004 May 06.

Goel A, Arnold CN, Niedzwiecki D, Carethers JM, Dowell JM, Wasserman L, Compton C, Mayer RJ, Bertagnolli MM, Boland CR. Frequent inactivation of PTEN by promoter hypermethylation in microsatellite instability-high sporadic colorectal cancers.  Cancer Res. 2004 May 1;64(9):3014-21.

Hong S, Farag NH, Nelesen RA, Ziegler MG, Mills PJ. Effects of regular exercise on lymphocyte subsets and CD62L after psychological vs. physical stress.  J Psychosom Res. 2004 Mar;56(3):363-70.

Hong S, Johnson TA, Farag NH, Guy HJ, Matthews SC, Ziegler MG, Mills PJ. Attenuation of T Lymphocyte Demargination and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Response to Moderate Exercise in Physically Fit Individuals.  J Appl Physiol. 2004 Oct 22; [Epub ahead of print]

Hsu LC, Park JM, Zhang K, Luo JL, Maeda S, Kaufman RJ, Eckmann L, Guiney DG, Karin M. The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4.  Nature. 2004 Mar 18;428(6980):341-5.

Imitola J, Park KI, Teng YD, Nisim S, Lachyankar M, Ourednik J, Mueller FJ, Yiou R, Atala A, Sidman RL, Tuszynski M, Khoury SJ, Snyder EY. Stem cells: cross-talk and developmental programs.  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2004 May 29;359(1445):823-37. Review.

Jung B, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Nguyen AK, Keku T, Sandler RS, Carethers JM. Loss of activin receptor type 2 protein expression in microsatellite unstable colon cancers.  Gastroenterology. 2004 Mar;126(3):654-9.

Kirito K, Fox N, Kaushansky K. Thrombopoietin induces HOXA9 nuclear transport in immature hematopoietic cells: potential mechanism by which the hormone favorably affects hematopoietic stem cells.  Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Aug;24(15):6751-62.

Lelievre JD, Petit F, Perrin L, Mammano F, Arnoult D, Ameisen JC, Corbeil J, Gervaix A, Estaquier J. The density of coreceptors at the surface of CD4+ T cells contributes to the extent of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral replication-mediated T cell death.  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Nov;20(11):1230-43.

Lemperle G, Morhenn VB, Pestonjamasp V, Gallo RL. Migration studies and histology of injectable microspheres of different sizes in mice.  Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Apr 15;113(5):1380-90.

Lu P, Yang H, Jones LL, Filbin MT, Tuszynski MH. Combinatorial therapy with neurotrophins and cAMP promotes axonal regeneration beyond sites of spinal cord injury.   J Neurosci. 2004 Jul 14;24(28):6402-9.

Lu Q, Liu X, Trama J, Roti MA, Go WY, Ho SN. Identification of the cytoskeletal regulatory protein alpha-adducin as a target of T cell receptor signaling.  Mol Immunol. 2004 Jun;41(4):435-47.

Mills PJ, Adler KA, Dimsdale JE, Perez CJ, Ziegler MG, Ancoli-Israel S, Patterson TL, Grant I. Vulnerable caregivers of Alzheimer disease patients have a deficit in beta 2-adrenergic receptor sensitivity and density.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 May-Jun;12(3):281-6.

Mills PJ, Dimsdale JE. Sleep apnea: a model for studying cytokines, sleep, and sleep disruption.  Brain Behav Immun. 2004 Jul;18(4):298-303. Review.

Mills PJ, Parker B, Jones V, Adler KA, Perez CJ, Johnson S, Cohen-Zion M, Marler M, Sadler GR, Dimsdale JE, Ancoli-Israel S. The effects of standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy on soluble icam-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in breast cancer.  Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1;10(15):4998-5003.

Morhenn VB, Murakami M, O'Grady T, Nordberg J, Gallo RL. Characterization of the expression and function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in keratinocytes.  Exp Dermatol. 2004 Aug;13(8):505-11.

Morris KV, Chan SW, Jacobsen SE, Looney DJ. Small interfering RNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing in human cells.  Science. 2004 Aug 27;305(5688):1289-92. Epub 2004 Aug 05.

Morris KV, Gilbert J, Wong-Staal F, Gasmi M, Looney DJ. Transduction of cell lines and primary cells by FIV-packaged HIV vectors.  Mol Ther. 2004 Jul;10(1):181-90.

Morris KV, Grahn RA, Looney DJ, Pedersen NC. Characterization of a mobilization-competent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vector containing a ribozyme against SIV polymerase.  J Gen Virol. 2004 Jun;85(Pt 6):1489-96.

Morris KV, Chung CH, Witke W, Looney DJ. Inhibition of HIV-1replication by siRNA targeting conserved regions of gag/pol.  RNA Biol. 2004 1:114-17.

Moutaftsi M, Brennan P, Spector SA, Tabi Z. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells.  J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):3046-54.

Nemet D, Mills PJ, Cooper DM. Effect of intense wrestling exercise on leucocytes and adhesion molecules in adolescent boys.  Br J Sports Med. 2004 Apr;38(2):154-8.<

Papagno L, Spina CA, Marchant A, Salio M, Rufer N, Little S, Dong T, Chesney G, Waters A, Easterbrook P, Dunbar PR, Shepherd D, Cerundolo V, Emery V, Griffiths P, Conlon C, McMichael AJ, Richman DD, Rowland-Jones SL, Appay V. Immune activation and CD8+ T-cell differentiation towards senescence in HIV-1 infection.  PLoS Biol. 2004 Feb;2(2):E20. Epub 2004 Feb 17.

Pham HM, Arganaraz ER, Groschel B, Trono D, Lama J. Lentiviral vectors interfering with virus-induced CD4 down-modulation potently block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary lymphocytes.  J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(23):13072-81.

Redwine L, Mills PJ, Sada M, Dimsdale J, Patterson T, Grant I. Differential immune cell chemotaxis responses to acute psychological stress in Alzheimer caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls.  Psychosom Med. 2004 Sep-Oct;66(5):770-5.

Rosenberger CM, Gallo RL, Finlay BB. Interplay between antibacterial effectors: a macrophage antimicrobial peptide impairs intracellular Salmonella replication.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 24;101(8):2422-7.

Sawka-Verhelle D, Escoubet-Lozach L, Fong AL, Hester KD, Herzig S, Lebrun P, Glass CK. PE-1/METS, an antiproliferative Ets repressor factor, is induced by CREB-1/CREM-1 during macrophage differentiation.  J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23;279(17):17772-84. Epub 2004 Jan 30.

Schubert R, Erker L, Barlow C, Yakushiji H, Larson D, Russo A, Mitchell JB, Wynshaw-Boris A. Cancer chemoprevention by the antioxidant tempol in Atm-deficient mice.  Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Aug 15;13(16):1793-802. Epub 2004 Jun 22.

Stokols S, Tuszynski MH. The fabrication and characterization of linearly oriented nerve guidance scaffolds for spinal cord injury.  Biomaterials. 2004 Dec;25(27):5839-46.

Tajima A, Hess MT, Cabrera BL, Kolodner RD, Carethers JM. The mismatch repair complex hMutS alpha recognizes 5-fluorouracil-modified DNA: implications for chemosensitivity and resistance.  Gastroenterology. 2004 Dec;127(6):1678-84.

Toyo-oka K, Hirotsune S, Gambello MJ, Zhou ZQ, Olson L, Rosenfeld MG, Eisenman R, Hurlin P, Wynshaw-Boris A. Loss of the Max-interacting protein Mnt in mice results in decreased viability, defective embryonic growth and craniofacial defects: relevance to Miller-Dieker syndrome.  Hum Mol Genet. 2004 May 15;13(10):1057-67. Epub 2004 Mar 17.

Valledor AF, Hsu LC, Ogawa S, Sawka-Verhelle D, Karin M, Glass CK. Activation of liver X receptors and retinoid X receptors prevents bacterial-induced macrophage apoptosis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21;101(51):17813-8. Epub 2004 Dec 15.

Woelk CH, Ottones F, Plotkin CR, Du P, Royer CD, Rought SE, Lozach J, Sasik R, Kornbluth RS, Richman DD, Corbeil J. Interferon gene expression following HIV type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages.  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Nov;20(11):1210-22.

Ye M, Morello CS, Spector DH. Multiple epitopes in the murine cytomegalovirus early gene product M84 are efficiently presented in infected primary macrophages and contribute to strong CD8+-T-lymphocyte responses and protection following DNA immunization.  J Virol. 2004 Oct;78(20):11233-45.

Zhang L, Insel PA. The pro-apoptotic protein Bim is a convergence point for cAMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-promoted apoptosis of lymphoid cells.  J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14;279(20):20858-65. Epub 2004 Mar 02.

Ali A, Pillai S, Ng H, Lubong R, Richman DD, Jamieson BD, Ding Y, McElrath MJ, Guatelli JC, Yang OO.  Broadly increased sensitivity to cytotoxic T lymphocytes resulting from Nef epitope escape mutations.  J Immunol.  171:3999-4005, 2003.

Arganaraz ER, Schindler M, Kirchhoff F, Cortes MJ, Lama J.  Enhanced CD4 down-modulation by late stage HIV-1 nef alleles is associated with increased Env incorporation and viral replication. J Biol Chem.  278:3912-3819, 2003.

Baek, S.H., Kioussi, C., Briata, P., Wang, D., Nguyen, H.D., Ohgi, K.A., Glass, C.K., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Rose, D.W. and Rosenfeld, M.G. Regulated subset of G1 growth-control genes in response to derepression by the Wnt pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  100:3245-3250, 2003.

Binder CJ, Horkko S, Dewan A, Chang MK, Kieu EP, Goodyear CS, Shaw PX, Palinski W, Witztum JL, Silverman GJ.  Pneumococcal vaccination decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation:  molecular mimicry between Streptococcus pneumoniae and oxidized LDL.  Nat Med.  9:736-743, 2003.

Chang DK, Goel A, Ricciardiello L, Lee DH, Chang CL, Carethers JM, Boland CR.  Effect of H(2)O(2) on cell cycle and survival in DNA mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient cell lines.  Cancer Lett.  195:243-251, 2003.

Guiney DG, Hasegawa P, Cole SP.  Helicobacter pylori preferentially induces interleukin 12 (IL-12) rather than IL-6 or IL-10 in human dendritic cells.  Infect Immun.  71:4163-4166, 2003.

Hirotsune, S., Yoshida, N., Chen, A., Garrett, L., Sugiyama, F., Takahashi, S., Yagami, K., Wynshaw-Boris, A. and Yoshiki, A. An expressed pseudogene regulates the messenger-RNA stability of its homologous coding gene. Nature.  423:91-96, 2003.

Ho SN.  The role of NFAT5/TonEBP in establishing an optimal intracellular environment.  Arch Biochem Biophys.  413:151-157, 2003.

Kaushansky K.  Thrombopoietin: a tool for understanding thrombopoiesis.  J Thromb Haemost.   1:1587-1592, 2003.

Kaushansky K.  Thrombopoietin: accumulating evidence for an important biological effect on the hematopoietic stem cell.  Ann N Y Acad Sci.  996:39-43, 2003.

Kaushansky K.  Etiology of the myeloproliferative disorders: the role of thrombopoietin.  Semin Hematol.  40(Suppl 1):6-9, 2003.

Kirito K, Fox N, Kaushansky K.  Thrombopoietin stimulates Hoxb4 expression: an explanation for the favorable effects of TPO on hematopoietic stem cells.  Blood.  102:3172-3178, 2003.<

Loomis WH, Namiki S, Ostrom RS, Insel PA, Junger WG.  Hypertonic stress increases T cell interleukin-2 expression through a mechanism that involves ATP release, P2 receptor, and p38 MAPK activation.   J Biol Chem.  278:4590-4596, 2003.

Miller YI, Worrall DS, Funk CD, Feramisco JR, Witztum JL.  Actin polymerization in macrophages in response to oxidized LDL and apoptotic cells: role of 12/15-lipoxygenase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.  Mol Biol Cell.  14:4196-4206, 2003.

Miller YI, Viriyakosol S, Binder CJ, Feramisco JR, Kirkland TN, Witztum JL.  Minimally modified LDL binds to CD14, induces macrophage spreading via TLR4/MD-2, and inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.  J Biol Chem.  278:1561-1568, 2003.

Mills PJ, Farag NH, Hong S, Kennedy BP, Berry CC, Ziegler MG.  Immune cell CD62L and CD11a expression in response to a psychological stressor in human hypertension.  Brain Behav Immun. 17:260-267, 2003.

Nishihara H, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Insel PA, Eckmann L.  Inhibition of apoptosis in normal and transformed intestinal epithelial cells by cAMP through induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-2.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  100:8921-8926, 2003.

Sanchez V, McElroy AK, Spector DH.  Mechanisms governing maintenance of Cdk1/cyclin B1 kinase activity in cells infected with human cytomegalovirus.  J Virol.  77:13214-3224, 2003.

Shaw PX, Goodyear CS, Chang MK, Witztum JL, Silverman GJ.  The autoreactivity of anti- phosphorylcholine antibodies for atherosclerosis-associated neo-antigens and apoptotic cells.  J Immunol.  170:6151-6157, 2003.

Sheeter D, Du P, Rought S, Richman D, Corbeil J.  Surface CD4 expression modulated by a cellular factor induced by HIV type 1 infection.  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses.  19:117-123, 2003.

Strain MC, Gunthard HF, Havlir DV, Ignacio CC, Smith DM, Leigh-Brown AJ, Macaranas T, Lam RY, Daly OA, Fischer M, Opravil M, Levine H, Bacheler L, Spina CA, Richman DD, Wong JK.  Heterogeneous clearance rates of long-lived lymphocytes infected with HIV: intrinsic stability predicts lifelong persistence.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  100:4819-4824, 2003.

Tuszynski MH.  Gene therapy for neurological disease.  Expert Opin Biol Ther.  3:815-828, 2003.

Zaunders JJ, Moutouh-de Parseval L, Kitada S, Reed JC, Rought S, Genini D, Leoni L, Kelleher A, Cooper DA, Smith DE, Grey P, Estaquier J, Little S, Richman DD, Corbeil J.  Polyclonal proliferation and apoptosis of CCR5+ T lymphocytes during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: regulation by interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and Bcl-2.  J Infect Dis.  187:1735-1747, 2003.


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